In the Middle Ages, groups and nationalities that were not ethnically Hungarian lived in the nation.
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The officially recognized minorities are Armenians, Bulgarians, Croats, Germans, Greeks, Poles, Romanians, Roma (Gypsy), Ruthenians, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes, and Ukrainians.In Latin chronicles dating back to the tenth century, there are colorful origin myths of the Hungarians "conquering" and occupying the Carpathian Basin and their conversion to Christianity under King Stephen.Many Hungarians consider their nation "the final fortress of Western Christianity and civilized Europe." National Identity.With this accord, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was established.The Austro-Hungarian monarchy ended after World War I.From time to time there were anti-Habsburg revolts, conspiracies, and political unrest.In 1848, a revolution led by Lajos Kossuth demanded democratic reforms and more independence from Austria. This was the first time that the general population, including the peasantry, experienced a sense of national unity.The largest minority is the Roma, who make up about 5 percent of the population, numbering approximately 500,000.The second largest minority are the Germans, who number an estimated 170,000.There are 80,000 to 110,000 Slovaks as well as about 35,000 Croatians, 15,000 to 25,000 Romanians, 80,000 to 100,000 Jews, and 5,000 Serbs. Hungarian belongs to the Ugor branch of the Finno-Ugric language family.Before World War II, German was the most important and frequently used second language.